Micro spinning or How to produce yarn at 40% cheaper than the conventional ring frame

As per the Site of Ministry of Rural Development “This technology is developed by Vortex pertains to the stages preparatory to spinning (pre-spinning). This can be coupled with a conventional spinning frame to produce yarn economically at a scale that is 1/100th of the prevailing scale. The technology integrates the operation of seed-removal (Ginning) with in-situ handling of fibres to produce slivers.”
Microspinning is a process of spinning in which small quantities of yarn can be produced. This is unlike in case of a standard spinning mill where large quantities of yarn need to be produced in order to be viable. In a spinning mill, the use of bales is the major cause of producing large quantities. It is also seen that pre spinning process is the major factor in making the textile mills bigger in size.
Micro spinning process eliminate the use of bales and convert directly cotton picked from fields to slivers. Thus it does away with the process of first converting the fibers into bales and then make it into uncompressed state. It will thus make possible for a spinner to produce as low as 30 tonnes per year of a medium quality of yarn (33s count) and therefore spinning can be brought in line with other small scale processes which can be done in small quantities such as dyeing and weaving. Weaver will get more returns ( about 20%) as a result of inhouse spindles (minimum 8 spindles onwards) the cost of setting up also reduces drastically.
Each microspinning unit from cotton to yarn will cost about 10 lakh rupees and therefore is an excellent investment for a small size entrepreneur. Total power requirement for a 24 spindle unit producing 3kg hank yarn per eight hours is less than 2 KW which is excellent for a power starved country like India. It required as area as low as 500 sq feet and can be installed in the field itself. As far as profitability of the unit is concerned, it is claimed that even at 40% capacity utilization, the profitability of a micro spinning unit will be seven times greater than the average spinning mill.
The possible issue here is the quality of yarn produced by microspinning unit as compared to the mill spinning. But I guess it would be ideal for low speed powerlooms and handlooms and will serve its purpose excellently.
Any success Stories ? Yes, there are many. According to website of Society of Elimination of Rural Poverty “The first unit has been running successfully in Chirala in Andhra Pradesh for the last 6 years and the cloth produced through this process is called “Malkha” cloth. Chirala unit has attained viability and sustainability and is being developed as a resource center for micro spinning and it is producing 1500 meters cloth per month and expected to increase to 1800 meters per month by April 2009”.
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Direct TV

DirectTV provides television and audio services to subscribers through satellite transmissions. The Services are equivalent to that of many local television services, broadcast television networks, subscription television services, satellite audio and private video services. Subscribers have access to dozens or hundreds of channels.
Small reception antennas are used to accept the services.
Consumers who purchased DirecTV equipment subscribe to various packages of Direct TV programming for which the subscriber pays a monthly fee. A subscriber also can order pay-per-view events and movies. DirecTV contracts with and pays program providers such as cable networks, motion picture distributors, sports leagues, event promoters, and other programming rights holders, for the right to distribute their programming to its subscribers.
All programming distributed by Directv is delivered to its broadcast centers in California, where it is then digitized and compressed. The resulting signal is encrypted, or electronically scrambled, by DirecTV to prevent its unauthorized reception. DirecTV then transmits these signals to several satellites located in stationary orbit approximately 22,300 miles above the equator from where these were directed to individual customer’s antenna.

Ringframe Productivity

Cotton Yarn prices are sky-rocketing, thanks to the failure of crops in China and India and rising export demands in developing countries. It is but obvious, that the companies dealing in yarn are making or expected to make huge profits in the coming quarter. The profitability is going to be even more for the composite textile mills where value addition is more. All this is leading to rise in the stock prices of Textile Companies in India and I am sure everywhere else in the world. I am bombarded from friends dealing in share market with requests of how to calculate various indicators to judge the operating efficiency of a spinning organization. One of the question being how to calculate the production per spindle in a ring frame.
Kilogram per spindle depends upon the count, spindle speed, efficiency of ring frame and twist per inch. In general, higher the count, lower the kilograms per spindle. Similarly higher the twist per inch, lower the kilograms per spindle. Ring frame efficiency varies from 90-93%, it decreases as the count increases with about 91% for 20s and 93% for 40s count. A formula for calculating the kg per spindle is given in the second link below.
As a rule of thumb, a mill with an average 70s count will be giving .200 kg per spindle per day, a mill with 35s count will give approx double, that is .400 gms per day. Similarly production in Kg per day for other counts can be calculated.
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Textile Used in Trade Displays

It is trendy to use textiles specifically designed to display company information. This is specially useful when exhibiting the company’s products in trade shows and trade fairs. The most commonly used articles of display are trade show flooring, trade show carpets, logo mats and logo canopies.

Trade show flooring is primarily used in trade shows, it comes in a variety of styles and shapes. There is even a line of printed flooring, so that end users can add a logo or message to the flooring.

Trade show carpets are a great help for exhibitors and add to a nice comfortable touch to any exhibit.

Logo mats are primarily used in offices, stores, retail outlets and retail chains. These can be printed in several different ways. Inlaid logos are common and full digital images can be produced.

Printed logo canopies using EZ Up products and other styles of printed tents are used by a wide variety of companies selling products on the go. Great for outdoor events, these canopies are the mainstay of presenters at all types of fairs and festivals.

Needless to say, Textiles customized for the exhibitors can go a long way in capturing the prospective customers in an elegant and non-obtrusive way.

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Count, Construction and Width of common Cotton Fabrics

Please note that value in bold represents count.

Cotton Drill Fabrics

16 X 12 /96 X 48 / 48″,63″, 93″ , 98″, 120″

20 X 20 / 108 X 56 / 48″, 63″, 93″ , 98″ , 120″

20 X 16 / 108 X 56 / 48″, 63″ , 93 “, 98″ , 120″

30 X30 / 124 X 64 / 48″, 63″, 93″, 98″, 120″

40 X 40 / 144 X 72 / 48″, 63 “, 93″ , 98 ” , 120″

Linen/Cotton Fabrics

88 X 64 / 20s X 20s Linen / 63″

72 X 68 / 20s X 16s Linen / 63″

Cotton Oxford Fabrics

84 X 38 / 2 / 20s X 2/ 20s / 48″, 63″

84 x 28 / 16 X 8 / 48 ” , 63″

108 X 72 / 20 X 16 / 48″, 63″

Cotton Poplin Fabrics

92 X 88 / 40 X 40 / 50″ , 63″

100 X 80 / 40 X 40 / 50″ , 63″

100 X 92 / 40 X 40 / 50″ , 63″

124 X 64 / 40 X 40 / 48″ , 63″

124 X 72 / 40 X 40 / 48″ , 63″

132 X 72 / 40 X 40 / 48″ , 63″

Cotton Twill Fabrics

124 X 64 / 30 X 30 / 48 ” to 120″

132 X 72 / 40 X 40 / 48 ” to 120″

144 X 74 / 40 X 40 / 48 ” to 120″

144 X 74 / 50 X 50 / 48 ” to 120″

Cotton Voile Fabrics

92 X 88 / 80 X 80 / 48 “, 63 “

92 X 104 / 80 X 80 / 48 “, 63 “

80 X 80 / 80 X 80 / 48 “, 63 “

100 X 92 / 80 X 80 / 48 “, 63 “

Cotton Satin Fabrics

100 X 80 / 40 X 40 / 98 ” , 120″

132 X 72 / 40 X 40 / 120″

124 X 64 / 30 X 30 / 120″

144 X 72 / 40 X 40 / 120″

175 X (56 X 2) /  60 X 60 / 120 ” – 300 TC

175 X (50 X 4) / 60 X 80 /120 ”  – 400 TC

195 X ( 72 X 4) / 80s X 100s X 120 ” -500 TC

195 X ( 86 X 4) / 80s X 100S X 120″ – 600 TC

175 X 146 / 4 / 120s X 2 / 120s / 120″ – 1000 TC

Cotton Bedford Fabrics

132 x 72 / 40×40 / 48″ & 63″

144 x 100 / 60×60 / 48″ & 63″

124 x 100 / 40×40 / 63″

144 x 72 / 50×50 / 63″

Cotton Cambric Fabrics

132 X 108m / 60 X 60 / 48″,54″,63″

92 X 88 / 60 X 60 / 48″ , 54″, 63″

132 X 72 / 50 X 50/ 48″ , 63″

124 X 100 / 50 X 50 / 63 “

Cotton Plain Fabric or Cotton Sheeting Fabrics

44 X 40 / 10 X 10 / 48″, 63″, 93″, 98″ , 120″ to 143″

60 X 60 / 16 X 16 / 48 ” , 63 “, 93″ , 98″ , 120″ to 143″

60 X 60 / 20 X 20 / 48 ” , 63 “, 93″ , 98″ , 120″ to 143″

68 X 68 / 30 X 30 / 48 ” , 63 “, 93″ , 98″ , 120″ to 143″

72 X 68 / 30 X 30 / 48 ” , 63 “, 93″ , 98″ , 120″ to 143″

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Fiber Length and Spinning Performance

Fiber length in spinning is important because it influences spinning limit, yarn strength, evenness and hairiness. It also contributes to the handle and luster of the product by influencing the number of turns of twist required. It influences productivity via the end breakage rate and end breakage rate.
In general, fibers less than 4 to 5 mm are lost at the spinning stage. Fibers from 12 to 15 mm do not contribute to strength but only to the fullness of the yarn. It is only fibers greater than 15mm in length that produce other positive characteristics in the yarn.
Fiber length after carding is most important. Conditions at card and fiber characteristics should be such that the fibers survive carding without noticeable shortening in length.
The fiber lengths can be assessed with the help of a staple diagram.
Remember that the fibers in the boll do not show extremely great length differences. Noticeable differences arise even before the spinning starts. This happens due to mechanical working on the fibers at the ginning and
cleaning stage.
Rectangular Staple
Such diagram is achievable with synthetic fibers.
However such lengths can cause problems in drafting as in drafting stage fibers do not move individually but in bunches, thereby producing a high degree of unevenness.
Triangular Staple
It lends itself to better processing than rectangular staple diagram. However, it produces too many short fibers which cannot be maintained under control. Thus it produces hairy yarn.
Trapezoidal Staple
The fibers depicting such diagram are ideal for processing.
Stepped Staple
It indicates that fiber materials of different lengths are mixed in wrong proportions. It has the disadvantage that fibres move only in bunches which produce a high degree of unevenness.
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Influence of Fiber Fineness and Maturity in spinning Process

Influence of Fiber Fineness and Maturity on spinning Process
Fiber Fineness
Fiber fineness determine how many fibers are present in the cross section of a yarn of given thickness. Additional fibers in the cross section not only provide additional strength but also a better distribution in the yarn. Minimum 30 fibers are needed, usually over 100 fibers are required. Fiber fineness influences spinning limit, drape of the fabric, yarn strength, luster, yarn evenness, handle, yarn fullness and productivity. Productivity is influenced by reduced end breakage rate.
In a conventional spinning process, fine fibers accumulate to the core and coarse fibers in the periphery.
Fiber fineness is measured in dtex which is equal to ratio of mass in dgrams and length in km. Decitex is equal to the product of Micronaire value of the cotton and 0.394.
Cotton fibers are generally classified as very fine if they have a micronaire value upto 3.1; fine if they have value between 3.1 to 3.9; medium if they have it between 4.0 to 4.9; slightly coarse between values of 5 to 5.9 and coarse if they have a micronaire value above 6.

Fiber Maturity
Cotton fiber consists of cell wall and lumen. The maturity index depends upon the thickness of the cell wall. The fibers are considered ripe if they have maturity index between 50-80 percent, unripe if they have MI between 30 to 45% and dead when they have it less than 25%.
Unripe fibers have neither adequate strength nor adequate longitudinal thickness. They lead to loss of yarn strength, neppiness, high proportion of short fibers, varying dyeability, processing difficulties mainly at the card.
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